A major perspective in sociology is postmodernism, not to be confused with late modernity. In late modernity, individualism is rife, but there are still shared norms, values, and reference points. In a postmodern society, the degree of diversity and pluralism is such that the plausibility structure of various worldviews has been so undermined that few believe in absolute truth. Relativism and scepticism rule the day.

This may remind some readers of Kuhn’s paradigm shifts and his argument that Truth with a capital T should not be considered a component of knowledge. According to Kuhn, we are always within a particular paradigm (except for the brief moment when we transition from one to another?). We have no theory-neutral way of judging different paradigms, so we cannot obtain objectivity. This being so, each paradigm could be true in its own terms, so we have no real grounds for privileging one over another.

Christ said, “I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life. No one comes to the Father except through Me” (Jn. 14:6). Our ability to reliably pursue and grasp truth has been damaged by the rebellion of mankind and the divine beings, but our failure does not constitute proof that there is no such thing as truth or that the human apprehension of truth is insufficient for various purposes.

If Kuhn were right, scientific and technological progress would be impossible. The fact that we can build machines that produce predictable results in accordance with our theories indicates that the theories that produced such results were more accurate as interpretations of the world than the other options under consideration at the time. This does not entail that such theories are perfect, but since accuracy is a component of truth, it indicates that there is at least some truth content to such theories and methods.

People have the freedom to go their own way, but this does not guarantee them freedom from the consequences of their choices. The idea of the Last Judgement places the day of reckoning at the end of history, but, in truth, God acts throughout history (consider occasions in the Bible where the phrase “Day of the LORD” refers to an identifiable historical event, e.g. the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar).

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